An Indian Rational Theology - Introduction to Udayana's by G. Chemparathy

An Indian Rational Theology - Introduction to Udayana's by G. Chemparathy

By G. Chemparathy

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Extra resources for An Indian Rational Theology - Introduction to Udayana's Nyayakusumanjali

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When the opponent argues that the reasoning of Udayana contains a fallacy, our author answers by a sort of retorqueo argumentum, that the opponent's argument, too, is not free from the same fault. The principle behind such a way of argumentation may be found in a statement of Udayana in his Kir 314, 7—8: yadi tübhayoh samah samädhir doso vä, na tarhi vayam eke paryanuyojyäh. 70 Cf. NKus 413, i—4. The original verse in PrP 400, 12—13 ran as follows: präthamyäd abhidhätrtvät tätparyävagamäd api / padänäm eva sä saktir varam abhyupagamyatäm // Better known is the verse in ATV 186, 1—4: sabdasya käcid api vastuni mänasiddhä bädhävidhivyavahrtih kirn ihästi no vä / asty eva cet katham iyanti na düsanäni nästy eva cet svavacanapratirodhasiddhih // which is an answer to Jnänasrimitra (quoted by Udayana in NVTP 713, 12—15): dharmasya kasyacid avastuni mänasiddhä bädhävidhir vyavahrtih kirn ihästi no vä / kväpy asti cet katham iyanti na düsanäni nästy eva cet svavacanapratirodhasiddhih.

71 Cf. NKus 314, 3—323, 4. 72 Ibid. 401, 1—404, 11. 73 Ibid. 327, 1—7. Cf. also ibid. 504, 2—505, 7. 74 Ibid. 497, 13—498, 8. The Nyäyakusumänjali 41 lays great stress on the importance and necessity of tarkah or negative conditional argument. In his Nyäyakusumänjali he observes that argumentations that are not supported by such tar&a-arguments are not effective (aprayojaJca-)75. A careful perusal of the Nyäyakusumänjali shows that its author followed this principle very closely. For his formal arguments are in most cases followed by supporting or favourable negative conditional arguments (anukulatarkah) where he points out the undesirable consequences that would follow if the thesis he has proposed is not accepted76.

Ibid. 19, 3—4. The Nyäyakusumäfijali 35 oneself and penetrate deeply into the truth about the Lord who has been spoken of in the sacred scriptures, in accordance with the Smrti passage that says: "It is (only) by ascertaining by means of the three ways of sacred scripture, inference and the delight of the exercise of meditation that one attains the supreme concentration"57. After these introductory lines Udayana brings forward five principal arguments of the opponents which are said to invalidate (bädheta) the existence of Isvara: "With regard to this ( = the existence of Isvara) there are five erroneous opinions (which assert that there exists no Isvara) on the ground that: 1) there is no other-worldly means (of attaining) a world beyond; 2) even otherwise (i.

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