Amphibian Morphogenesis by Harold Fox

Amphibian Morphogenesis by Harold Fox

By Harold Fox

This e-book took place because of a overview I had written prior on fea­ tures of mobile alterations happening in the course of anuran metamorphosis. just a constrained therapy of this topic was once attainable in the sort of circumscribed paintings and in basic terms particular examples of natural switch have been handled. hence the sins of omission weighed seriously, for thus a lot info couldn't be integrated to supply a extra finished and authenticated account of the flowery, advanced, and far-reaching alterations that an aquatic larva undergoes to develop into a terrestrial froglet. a great deal of my operating lifestyles has been spent investigating amphib­ ians, particularly their larval developmental morphology in the course of metamor­ phosis, first on the point of sunshine microscopy and in later years by means of electronmicroscopy. at the beginning i used to be fairly involved in morpho­ logical homologies of numerous larval constructions, similar to the cranial and pharyngeal skeleton and the nerves and musculature, that allows you to research extra approximately amphibian phylogeny, for in the course of my pre-and early postgrad­ uate years G. R. Beer and D. M. S. Watson encouraged an timeless curiosity in and admire for vertebrate comparative anatomy. even if, it now looks that amphibian phylogenetic relationships are most sensible handled through the paleontologists, so ably proven by way of D. M. S. Watson and A. S. Romer and the modern fanatics during this box like A. L. Panchen, R. L. Carroll, E. Jarvik, and okay. S. Thompson between a number of others, relatively within the USA.

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7. Caecilia (Apoda or Gymnophiona) The heart and associated arteries, external gills, and developing vertebral column of young larvae of Ichthyophis glutinosus and Gegenophis carnosus, were studied by Ramaswami (1944, 1954, 1957). Inger (1954) described larvae of Ichthyophis monochrous, 65-231 mm long from the Philippines. Cochran (1972) provided some brief information on embryos and larvae of various caecilians. , Rhinatrema, Siphonops, and possibly Caecilia) , since no developing embryos have yet been found in the female's oviduct.

Granulosus. and B. microtympanum. 37. , 1981 SUBORDER PROCOELA Family Bufonidae (toads and their allies) Ansonia muelleri and Inger, 1954 A. penangenis Family Hyperoliidae Heterixalus betsileo and H. , 1981 aIwasawa and Rhacophorus arboreus Kawasaki, 1979 b'fing, 1970 Rhacophorus leucomystax cBlommersMalagasy Frogs of Schlosser, 1979a Genus Boophis 8. Tables of Staged Specimens (continued)

53 Larval period Promet. 65_66 J Emergence Fore limb annax penod X I - - - - + X I I _ X I X _ XX_XXI ______ X X I I _ XXIII_ Taylor & KoHrosStages(19461 1 _ VI------. ,.. ~52 1 Hmd-LlmbBud - - - - - - - - - -..... 9 . 1 0 _ 1 3 _ 1 6 _ 1 7 . 1 8 ...... 20 .. 21 __ 23------+25 .. 26 Blastula Embryontc period Cambar & MarrotStages(1954) - - - - - - _ . 26 Shumway stages (1940) -----~I Nleuwkoop & Faber stages (1956) • 35138 1 Hatchmg Larval period Fig. 3. Scheme of the development of anuran larvae represented by the staged series of A.

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