By Roger Daniels
"Once i presumed to write down a heritage of the immigrants in the USA. Then i found that the immigrants were American history," wrote historian Oscar Handlin. Immigrants and generations in their descendants have outlined the yank kingdom from its starting and proceed to supply America's attribute range, representing virtually each race, nationality, faith, and ethnic workforce all over the world. a few immigrants got here to the recent global looking for monetary achieve. Others have been introduced in chains. nonetheless others stumbled on shelter in the USA from spiritual or ethnic persecution.
This single-volume encyclopedia contains greater than three hundred entries, masking a number of features of immigration background and policy:
* ethnic teams, together with census and immigration data, significant sessions of immigration and parts of payment, primary faith, and ancient background
* key immigration laws, akin to the chinese language Exclusion Act, Immigration Act of 1990, and Refugee Act of 1980
* phrases and ideas, together with eco-friendly card, quota method, citizen, naturalization, photograph brides, and nativism
* different types of immigrants, together with refugees, indentured servants, youngsters, and exiles
* immigration stations: Angel Island, citadel backyard, and Ellis Island * spiritual teams and church buildings, similar to Amish, Huguenots, Muslims, and jap ceremony churches
* additional examining lists and cross-references stick with each one entry
An introductory essay presents a cogent evaluate of the whole scope of the publication. greater than a hundred and fifty images and illustrations supplement the entries. Statistical packing containers complement the articles with key details. an inventory of immigration, ethnic, and refugee corporations; a consultant to extra study that comes with books, museums, and internet sites; and an in depth chronology finish this helpful source for examine in American background, ethnic and multicultural stories, and genealogy.
Oxford's pupil partners to American heritage are state of the art references for college and residential, in particular designed and written for a long time 12 via grownup. every one booklet is a concise yet complete A-to-Z consultant to a massive ancient interval or topic in U.S. heritage, with articles on key concerns and in demand members. The authors--distinguished students recognized of their components of expertise--ensure that the entries are actual, up to date, and obtainable. certain gains contain an introductory part on easy methods to use the booklet, extra studying lists, cross-references, chronology, and entire index.
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In 1987 ethnohistorian James Axtell released the item “Colonial the USA with no the Indians Counterfactual Reflections,” during which he imagined a North the United States bereft of people on the time of ecu exploration and payment. the aim of his piece used to be to illustrate how very important the local peoples of the continent have been to the background and improvement of the us.
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Additional info for American Immigration: A Student Companion (Oxford Student Companions to American History)
50 B E L G I A N S gold rush. For a long period in the late 19th and early 20th centuries there was severe hostility to Basque ranchers and sheepherders. An Idaho newspaper complained in 1909, "These fiascos . . are on a par with the Chinaman. . They are filthy, treacherous and meddlesome . . clannish and undesirable . . " As the 20th century progressed, the image of the Basques changed. Basque sheepherders became greatly prized, so much so that Congress, at the urging of Nevada senator Patrick McCarran, passed special legislation enabling western ranchers to bring in sheepherders as contract laborers.
When, in 1851, gold was discovered in Australia, most of them returned, along with a large number of others who had been seeking gold in California. The second period of relatively heavy immigration came just after World War II, when some 10,000 Australian war brides—women who married American soldiers stationed in Australia—emigrated to the United States. The two most prominent Australian immigrants in the 20th century have been the labor leader Harry Renton Bridges and the newspaper magnate Rupert Murdoch.
Perhaps even more important was the influence of a number of important refugee art historians, the most eminent of whom was the German Erwin Panofsky, who spent more than three decades at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. As a group, the refugee art historians established the discipline in American universities. SEE ALSO Refugees FURTHER READING Fleming, Donald, and Bernard Bailyn, eds. The Intellectual Migration: Europe and America, 1930-1960. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969.